By taking advantage of the warpage that is commonly considered as a defect of desktop fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printers, we demonstrated that with an FDM printer, off-the-shelf printing filaments and a design editor, we can print flat thermoplastic composites and trigger them to self-fold into 3D.

Byoungkwon An, Ye Tao, Jianzhe Gu, Tingyu Cheng, Xiang 'Anthony' Chen, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Wei Zhao, Youngwook Do, Shigeo Takahashi, Hsiang-Yun Wu, Teng Zhang, Lining Yao. Thermorph: Democratizing 4D Printing of Self-Folding Materials and Interfaces. In Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '18). ACM, New York, NY, USA.